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Hypogonadism in HIV-1-infected men is common and does not resolve during antiretroviral therapy

Dorothea M Wunder, Nick A Bersinger, Christoph A Fux, Nicolas J Mueller, Bernard Hirschel, Matthias Cavassini, Luigia Elzi, Patrick Schmid, Enos Bernasconi, Bruno Mueller, Hansjakob Furrer, the Swiss HIV Cohort Study

Corresponding author name: Hansjakob Furrer
Corresponding author e-mail: hansjakob.furrer@insel.ch

Citation: Antiviral Therapy 2007; 12:261-265


Objectives: To assess the prevalence of abnormal testosterone and gonadotropin values in HIV-infected men before and after 2 years of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART).

Design: Multicentre cohort of HIV-infected adults.
Methods: We identified 139 Caucasian antiretroviral-naive male patients who started zidovudine/lamivudine-based cART that was virologically successful over a 2 year period. Ninety-seven were randomly chosen and plasma hormone determinations of free testosterone (fT) and luteinizing hormone (LH) at baseline and after 2 years of cART were evaluated.

Results: At baseline 68 patients (70%) had subnormal fT levels. In these, LH levels were low in 44%, normal in 47% and high in 9%. There was a trend for an association between lower CD4+ T-cell counts and hypogonadism. Most participants had normal FSH levels. No significant changes of fT, LH and FSH levels were observed after 2 years of cART.

Conclusions: Low fT levels, mainly with normal or low LH levels and thus indicating secondary hypogonadism, are found in the majority of HIV-infected men and do not resolve during 2 years of successful cART.


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