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Original article

Longitudinal analysis of the associations between antiretroviral therapy, viraemia and immunosuppression with lipid levels: the D:A:D study

David A Kamara, Colette Smith, Lene Ryom, Peter Reiss, Martin Rickenbach, Andrew Phillips, Amanda Mocroft, Stephan De Wit, Matthew Law, Antonella d’Arminio Monforte, Francois Dabis, Christian Pradier, Jens D Lundgren, Caroline Sabin

Corresponding author name: David A Kamara
Corresponding author e-mail: d.kamara@ucl.ac.uk

Citation: Antiviral Therapy 2016; 21:495-506
doi: 10.3851/IMP3051

Date accepted: 22 February 2016
Date published online: 26 April 2016


Background: Antiretroviral (ART) drugs have been associated with higher triglycerides (TG), higher total cholesterol (TC) and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Associations between lipid levels with HIV viraemia and immunosuppression in the presence of ART remain unclear.

Methods: Participants from the D:A:D study with at least one TG/TC/HDL-C measurement were included. Linear mixed effect models were used to determine the association of ART, viral load (VL), nadir and current CD4+ T-cell count and previous AIDS diagnosis with lipids.

Results: Of 49,717 participants, 90%, 92% and 80% contributed at least one TG/TC/HDL-C measurement (median follow-up 6.8, 6.8 and 5.0 years, respectively). Predicted mean (95% CI) baseline levels for TG, TC and HDL-C (mmol/l), were 2.10 (2.05, 2.14), 4.94 (4.91, 4.98) and 1.08 (1.07, 1.10), respectively. Lopinavir was associated with the worst TG profile, (27.2% higher levels compared to atazanavir; 95% CI 25.2%, 29.2%), and darunavir had a similar profile as atazanavir. The nucleoside pair lamivudine/tenofovir was associated with the most favourable TG profile (-2.8%; -3.5%, -2.0%) compared with emtricitabine/tenofovir, whereas lamivudine/abacavir (+10.2%; +9.3%, +11.2%) and lamivudine/stavudine (+8.0%; +6.9%, +9.0%), were associated with the worst. Raltegravir was associated with lower TG (-5.2%; -6.4%, -3.9%), and nevirapine had a more favourable HDL-C profile (+11.3%; +10.8%, +11.7%) than efavirenz (+5.3%; 5.0%, 5.7%), compared to atazanavir. Higher VLs were associated with lower TG/TC/HDL-C, whereas higher CD4+ T-cell counts were associated with higher TG/TC/HDL-C.

Conclusions: TG, TC and HDL-C levels, which generally improved over time, are dependent on ART, viraemia and, to a lesser extent, immunosuppression.


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