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Original article

Vitamin D deficiency is common in HIV-infected southern Australian adults

Karen M Klassen, Christopher K Fairley, Michael G Kimlin, Jane Hocking, Liza Kelsall, Peter R Ebeling

Corresponding author name: Karen M Klassen
Corresponding author e-mail: karenklassen@gmail.com

Citation: Antiviral Therapy 2016; 21:117-125
doi: 10.3851/IMP2983

Date accepted: 26 July 2015
Date published online: 11 August 2015


Background: Vitamin D deficiency can have serious health consequences and may be particularly important for those living with HIV. It is unknown whether HIV infection is a risk factor for vitamin D deficiency. The aim of the study was to determine whether vitamin D deficiency is more common in HIV-infected than in HIV-uninfected individuals.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of HIV-infected and uninfected individuals. A total of 997 HIV-infected participants were from a sexual health clinic in Melbourne with 25(OH)D measurements taken between 2008 and 2012. 3,653 HIV-uninfected individuals were participants in a statewide Victorian survey with 25(OH)D measurements taken between 2009 and 2010. Logistic regression models evaluated the association of HIV status with vitamin D deficiency (25[OH]D<50 nmol/l).

Results: The frequency of vitamin D deficiency was significantly more common in HIV-infected (39% [95% CI 36%, 42%]) compared with HIV-uninfected individuals 23% (95% CI 15%, 31%). In multivariable analysis, males (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.8; 95% CI 0.6, 0.9; P=0.001), Caucasian country of origin (aOR 0.4; 95% CI 0.3, 0.4; P<0.001), summer/autumn (aOR for autumn 0.2; 95% CI 0.1, 0.3; P<0.001), total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein ratio >5 (aOR 1.4; 95% CI 1.2, 1.8; P<0.001) and HIV infection (aOR 1.7; 95% CI 1.4, 2.1; P<0.001) were associated with vitamin D deficiency.

Conclusions: Adults living in southern Australia with HIV were more likely to be vitamin D deficient than the general population.


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