About AVT
Browse Articles
Customer Services


Late diagnosis, delayed presentation and late presentation in HIV: proposed definitions, methodological considerations and health implications

Michael Kozak, Anne Zinski, Connie Leeper, James H Willig, Michael J Mugavero

Corresponding author name: Michael J Mugavero
Corresponding author e-mail: mmugavero@uab.edu

Citation: Antiviral Therapy 2013; 18:17-23
doi: 10.3851/IMP2534

Date accepted: 24 September 2012
Date published online: 22 January 2013


Contemporary literature emphasizes HIV treatment across multiple stages of the care continuum, beginning with HIV testing, followed by linkage and retention in medical care. As a sizeable global population remains undiagnosed or not engaged in medical care, researchers must evaluate the earliest phases of the HIV treatment cascade in order to optimize individual health outcomes and treatment-as-prevention initiatives. Because ambiguity persists for classification of these early stages of HIV care, the aim of this review is to propose a congruous approach to defining the constructs of late diagnosis, delayed presentation and late presentation for HIV medical care, as well as focus attention on methodological considerations and associated clinical and public health implications for these entities.


Copyright © 2021 Nucleus Holdings Ltd. Part of Nucleus Global.
Design and Technology by Nucleus Global
Company registration No. 321 0712 (England & Wales). Registered Office address: Admiral House 76-78 Old Street, London EC1V 9AZ.