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Co-Morbidities and Adverse Drug Reactions in HIV
Plenary outlines

Provisional outlines for plenary presentations at the 19th Co-morbidities Workshop, appear below.
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Sarcopenia and cachexia in chronic illness – definition, common pathophysiology and lessons learned from recent trials
Stefan D Anker, University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany
Outline to follow.

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Osteoporosis Treatment: Current Advances and Future Prospects
Juliet Compston, University of Cambridge, UK
Professor Compston will discuss current pharmacological interventions and drugs in development, she will also discuss targeting for treatment.

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Lipodystrophy syndrome:  history, where we are now, what have we learnt and the future
David Cooper, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
Outline to follow.

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Cardiovascular Outcome Trials in T2DM
Stefano Del Prato, University of Pisa, Italy
Professor Del Prato will discuss cardiovascular disease (CVD) and how it is one of the most common diabetes-associated complications and a leading cause for death in type 2 diabetes patients (T2D), due to the coexistence of multiple CV risk factors associated with hyperglycemia. While trials designed to show the potential benefit of strict glycemic control have been inconclusive, more recent CV outcome trials have shown that some of the novel glucose-lowering agents may convey a significant reduction of CVD. This beneficial effect, however, is unlikely to be due to a mere effect on glucose level reduction. Hence, though these results have provided new hopes to reduce the burden of CVD in diabetes, a number of questions remains to be addressed, including the mechanisms responsible for CVD reduction, the ideal patient for these pharmacologic agents and the best time patients should be started on.

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Brown fat and making white fat beige
Sven Enerback, University of Gothenburg, Sweden

Professor Enerback will discuss brown adipose tissue (BAT) and how it has the unique capacity to regulate energy expenditure by a process called adaptive thermogenesis, which dissipates chemical energy to produce heat. If fully active, the BAT depots of adult humans may burn an amount of energy equivalent to about 4 kg of white adipose tissue (WAT) per year. Needless to say, the identification of BAT in adult humans opens up completely new avenues of therapeutic intervention and offers unique scientific opportunities. This entails a need to better understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate BAT metabolism. This presentation is focused on how BAT, WAT and muscle regulate its uptake and use of substrates for metabolism and how this affects the function of these tissues.

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