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High prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance among HIV-1-untreated patients in Guinea-Conakry and in Niger

Charlotte Charpentier, Pantxika Bellecave, Mohamed Cisse, Saidou Mamadou, Mandiou Diakite, Gilles Peytavin, Stéphanie Tchiombiano, Pierre Teisseire, Louis Pizarro, Alexandre Storto, Françoise Brun-Vézinet, Christine Katlama, Vincent Calvez, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Bernard Masquelier, Diane Descamps

Corresponding author name: Charlotte Charpentier
Corresponding author e-mail: charlotte.charpentier@bch.aphp.fr

Citation: Antiviral Therapy 2011; 16:429-433
doi: 10.3851/IMP1754

Date accepted: 20 September 2010
Date published online: 15 March 2011

Abstract

Background: The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance mutations in HIV-1 from recently diagnosed and untreated patients living in Conakry, Guinea-Conakry and in Niamey, Niger.

Methods: The study was performed in two countries of Western Africa – Guinea-Conakry and Niger – using the same survey method in both sites. All newly HIV-1 diagnosed patients, naive of antiretroviral drugs, were consecutively included during September 2009 in each of the two sites. Protease and reverse transcriptase sequencing was performed using the ANRS procedures. Drug resistance mutations were identified according to the 2009 update surveillance drug resistance mutations.

Results: In Conakry, 99 patients were included, most of whom (89%) were infected with CRF02_AG recombinant virus. Resistance analysis among the 93 samples showed that ≥1 drug resistance mutation was observed in 8 samples, leading to a prevalence of primary resistance of 8.6% (95% CI 2.91–14.29%). In Niamey, 96 patients were included; a high diversity in HIV-1 subtypes was observed with 47 (51%) patients infected with CRF02_AG. Resistance analysis performed among the 92 samples with successful genotypic resistance test showed that ≥1 drug resistance mutation was observed in 6 samples, leading to a prevalence of primary resistance of 6.5% (95% CI 1.50–11.50%).

Conclusions: We reported the first antiretroviral drug resistance survey studies in antiretroviral-naive patients living in Guinea-Conakry and in Niger. The prevalence of resistance was between 6% and 9% in both sites, which is higher than most of the other countries from Western Africa region.

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