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Original article

HIV type-1 drug resistance in antiretroviral treatment-naive adults infected with non-B subtype virus in the United Kingdom

Daniella N Chilton, Hannah Castro, Sam Lattimore, Linda J Harrison, Esther Fearnhill, Valerie Delpech, Brian Rice, Deenan Pillay, David T Dunn, the UK Collaborative Group on HIV Drug Resistance

Corresponding author name: David T Dunn
Corresponding author e-mail: David.Dunn@ctu.mrc.ac.uk

Citation: Antiviral Therapy 2010; 15:985-991
doi: 10.3851/IMP1658

Date accepted: 12 April 2010
Date published online: 09 September 2010

Abstract

Background: There is an increasing prevalence of non-B subtype HIV type-1 (HIV-1) infections in Europe, reflecting patterns of migration. We examined the characteristics of HIV-1 drug resistance in antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naive individuals migrating to the UK.

Methods: Resistance tests reported to the UK HIV Drug Resistance Database between 2001 and 2006 were included. Demographic data were obtained via linkage to national databases. Resistance was defined as ≥1 drug resistance mutation. Non-B HIV-1 subtype was used as a surrogate marker of infection acquired outside the UK. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between demographics and the prevalence of resistance.

Results: Overall, 196/4,291 (4.6%) samples with non-B subtype showed resistance compared with 745/6,435 (11.6%) samples for subtype B. Among non-B subtypes, the prevalence of resistance decreased over time (6.0% in 2001–2003 to 3.2% in 2006) and was independently associated with later calendar year of sampling (P=0.001). Resistance was confined mainly to one ART class (85%); non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance was more common in subtype C (47%) compared with non-B non-C subtypes (29%; P=0.02). M184V was more common in non-B subtypes (non-B 30% versus B 5%; P<0.001) and T215 variants were more common in subtype B (non-B 10% versus B 49%; P<0.001).

Conclusions: In ART-naive individuals living in the UK, but who are likely to have acquired HIV-1 abroad, we observed a downward trend in resistance over time, which is surprising in light of ART roll-out in resource-limited settings. Reassuringly, resistance was mainly confined to one drug class; however, patterns of resistance differed by subtype, with some evidence of possible undisclosed prior therapy in non-B subtypes.

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