Efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine compared with emtricitabine alone in antiretroviral-naive HIV–HBV coinfection in ThailandAnchalee Avihingsanon, Sharon R Lewin, Stephen Kerr, Judy J Chang, Komolmit Piyawat, Nounpen Napissanant, Gail V Matthews, Gregory J Dore, Scott Bowden, Joep Lange, Kiat Ruxrungtham
Corresponding author name: Anchalee Avihingsanon
Corresponding author e-mail: Anchalee.A@hivnat.org
Citation: Antiviral Therapy 2010; 15:917-922
Date published online: 19 August 2010
Background: Therapy for chronic hepatitis B with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and lamivudine (3TC) or emtricitabine (FTC) is currently recommended for HIV–HBV coinfection. However, there is limited randomized data on the efficacy of combined therapy with TDF and FTC, especially in antiretroviral (ARV)-naive patients.
Methods: This was a prospective randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of HBV monotherapy with FTC versus TDF/FTC combination therapy in ARV-naive HIV–HBV coinfection. HIV–HBV-coinfected patients initiating ARV were randomized to either FTC/zidovudine/efavirenz (EFV; n=6) or TDF/FTC/EFV (n=10). The primary end point was the time-weighted area under the curve (TWAUC) of HBV DNA at 48 weeks.
Results: The median baseline CD4+ T-cell count was 64 cells/μl (interquartile range [IQR] 36–172), plasma HIV type-1 RNA was 4.90 log10 copies/ml (IQR 4.58–5.44) and plasma HBV DNA was 8.76 log10 copies/ml (IQR -8.45–8.82). A total of 11/16 (69%) patients were hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive. The median TWAUC decrease in HBV DNA was -5.32 log10 copies/ml in the TDF/FTC group compared with -3.25 log10 copies/ml in the FTC group (P=0.03). At week 48, 90% of the TDF/FTC group and 33% of the FTC group had plasma HBV DNA<170 copies/ml (P=0.036, intention-to-treat analysis). HBeAg loss was observed in 4/11 (36%) HBeAg-positive patients. Hepatic flares were observed in 3/16 (19%) of patients.
Conclusions: TDF/FTC combination therapy resulted in a significantly greater decrease in HBV DNA than FTC monotherapy, with a greater proportion of patients with undetectable HBV DNA at week 48. Our study supports the current recommendation of ARV containing TDF/FTC as the treatment of choice for patients with HIV–HBV coinfection.